Health Encyclopedia


Health Encyclopedia Home

Hormonal Therapy: Managing Side Effects in Women

Hormonal Therapy: Managing Side Effects in Women

Hormones are chemicals the body naturally produces to control the growth and activity of normal cells. Hormones can also speed the growth of some types of cancer. For example, the hormones estrogen and progesterone can stimulate the growth of some breast tumors.

Hormonal therapy is used to prevent or block hormones from speeding up the growth of cancer cells. Different forms of hormonal therapy, which is also called hormone therapy or endocrine therapy, are used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers.

In general, there are two different approaches to hormonal therapy:

  • Surgical. Removal of an organ in the body that produces the hormone or hormones that stimulate cancer growth. For example, in men, the testes, which produce testosterone, can be removed with a procedure called an orchiectomy, to slow the growth of some prostate cancers.

  • Medical. Agents are used to block the hormones that stimulate cancer growth. For example, the drug tamoxifen helps prevent estrogen from stimulating breast cancer growth.

The female hormones estrogen and progesterone promote the growth of some breast tumors. Hormonal therapy may be given to block these hormones from stimulating tumor growth.

Many breast cancer cells have proteins on their surfaces that can bind to estrogen. These proteins are called estrogen receptors. Tumors may also have progesterone receptors that bind to progesterone. When estrogen or progesterone binds to its receptor on the cancer cell, it signals that cell to grow.

Not all breast cancers have estrogen or progesterone receptors. In general, hormonal therapy appears to be more effective in treating breast tumors that have hormone receptors than in treating tumors that do not have these receptors.

Hormonal therapy is used in women with advanced breast cancer that has spread, or metastasized, to other parts of the body. It is also used on occasion in women who have been recently diagnosed with a large breast tumor to shrink the cancer before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) or to prevent cancer from returning after surgery or radiation (adjuvant therapy). In some women, who have a high risk for getting breast cancer, hormonal therapy is used to prevent cancer from developing.

Hormonal therapy, like other types of cancer treatment, has side effects. An overview of hormonal therapies and ways to prevent or minimize these side effects are discussed below.

Types of hormonal therapies

There are a variety of hormonal therapies available for breast cancer. Each type works a bit differently, but all have the same goal of starving the tumor of estrogen:

  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are antiestrogen drugs that bind to the estrogen receptor. This prevents estrogen from binding to the receptor and stimulating cancer cell growth. SERMs include tamoxifen, toremifene, and raloxifene. They are taken as oral tablets.

  • Aromatase inhibitors. These drugs are used in older women who have been through menopause. Although the ovaries of these women no longer produce large amounts of estrogen, male hormones (androgens) do circulate in the blood and can be changed into estrogen. An enzyme called aromatase carries out this change. Aromatase inhibitors prevent aromatase from changing androgens into estrogen. Anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane are examples of aromatase inhibitors. They are taken as oral tablets.

  • Estrogen receptor antagonist. A newer class of hormonal therapy drugs is the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist. One example is fulvestrant, which is given by a monthly injection into the muscle. Like SERMs, ER antagonists bind to the estrogen receptor and block estrogen from binding to it. In addition, they also break down the estrogen receptor, lowering the number of receptors in the cell (a process called downregulation).

  • Megestrol acetate. This is a progesterone-like drug that may be used in women with advanced breast cancer who do not benefit from tamoxifen.

  • Ovarian ablation. The ovaries are the main source of estrogen in women who have not reached menopause. They may be removed by surgery through a procedure called oophorectomy, or they may be made inactive by radiation therapy. Removing or inactivating the ovaries causes premature menopause and its symptoms, including hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Loss of bone mass also occurs in menopause. When the ovaries are removed, a large amount of bone can be lost in a short time, which can lead to osteoporosis if it is not treated.

Side effects of hormonal therapy and ways to manage them

The side effects of hormonal therapy tend to be less severe than those caused by chemotherapy. In fact, some women experience few symptoms or have side effects that get better with time. But when side effects do arise, it is important for women to report all symptoms, even those that are minor, to a nurse or doctor. Hormonal therapy is often taken for long periods of time and symptoms can last throughout treatment if the symptoms are not treated. Women should also always talk to their doctor about any alternative remedies they might want to try. Some alternative remedies can interfere with treatment.

Below are some ways to cope with some of the side effects of hormonal therapy.

More common side effects

Hot flashes

A hot flash, also called a hot flush, with or without sweating, is a sudden rush of warmth to the face, neck, upper chest, and back that can last for a few seconds to an hour or more. This side effect is quite common with hormonal therapy. Some women experience mild symptoms while others have more severe effects. In many cases, hot flashes stop when hormonal treatment stops. Some women report that hot flashes last for years after treatment is finished. The following are some treatment options for managing hot flashes. Not all have been scientifically tested:

  • Megestrol acetate is a form of progesterone called progestin that seems to be effective in lowering hot flash severity, but has some side effects, including breast tenderness, irregular vaginal bleeding, mood changes, and bloating.

  • Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine

  • Gabapentin

  • Clonidine, normally used to lower high blood pressure, may be no better than a placebo, or dummy pill. Side effects include dry mouth, dizziness, drowsiness, and sleep difficulties.

  • Phytoestrogens are estrogens that come from plants. Soy products and some herbs contain phytoestrogens. Although raising the amount of phytoestrogens in the diet is commonly recommended to lessen the severity of hot flashes, studies have shown conflicting results about their effectiveness.

  • Relaxation training

  • Dietary changes. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods.

  • Clothing. Wear absorbent cotton clothing in layers that can be easily removed.

  • Use sprays or moist wipes to help lower skin temperature.

  • Acupuncture

Vaginal dryness and other vaginal issues

Vaginal dryness and/or discharge can be bothersome. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants can help with this symptom. Vaginal moisturizers, such as Replens, Gyne-Moistrin, and Lubrin, can be used as needed to keep the vagina moist. Water-soluble lubricants, such as KY Jelly and Astroglide or any vaginal moisturizers, can be used before sexual activity.

In addition to vaginal dryness, women may also experience vaginal thinning and difficult or painful intercourse. Lubricants can help with some of these problems, as well.

Vaginal infections may also occur more frequently. Over-the-counter antifungal creams can provide relief for yeast infections, but a woman should contact her gynecologist for symptoms that do not go away.


A common problem in women with cancer is fatigue or a lack of energy. Many things can cause fatigue, such as anemia, depression, pain, poor nutrition, medications, and inadequate sleep. Some ways to prevent fatigue include:

  • Go to bed at a regular time

  • Take short power naps during the day

  • Engage in an exercise routine, with doctor's supervision. For example, walking 10 to 30 minutes a day.

  • Eat healthy foods and drink fluids

  • If anemia is contributing to fatigue, blood growth stimulators, such as epoetin alfa (Procrit) or blood transfusions, may be prescribed

Nausea and vomiting

This side effect is less common with hormonal therapy than it is with chemotherapy. Nausea often goes away on its own. Women can help manage symptoms by eating bland foods, such as crackers, toast, and cereal, and drinking lots of fluids–6 to 8 glasses of liquids daily, such as water, broth, or Gatorade. The doctor or nurse may recommend antinausea medications or antianxiety medications that prevent or treat nausea or vomiting. If dehydration occurs, intravenous fluids may be needed.


Diarrhea is a less common side effect of hormone therapy. Dietary measures, such as eating a bland diet and avoiding foods such as dairy products and spicy foods, can help reduce symptoms. Medications, such as loperamide (Imodium) and diphenoxylate (Lomotil), can be used to treat diarrhea.


Constipation is a less common side effect of hormone therapy. Daily exercise, eating foods high in fiber (such as uncooked fruits and vegetables and whole grain breads and cereals) and drinking lots of liquids--6 to 8 glasses a day--can help ease symptoms. If these measures do not work, medicines, such as a stool softener or laxative, may be needed.

Weight gain

A daily exercise routine of 20 to 30 minutes per day and a weight management program can be helpful. Eating foods low in fat, such as fruits and vegetables, is a good idea.

Mood swings

Nervousness, depression, and anxiety are some of the symptoms that women may experience. It is natural to experience strong emotions in response to a diagnosis of breast cancer. These may become stronger when a woman receives hormonal therapy. Relaxation, meditation, and yoga may be useful in controlling mood swings. Exercise may help boost mood and relieve anxiety. Support groups and professional counselors may be helpful for some women. Antidepressants may be prescribed.

Pain, including pain in joints, back, and bones

For mild to moderate pain, over-the-counter pain medication can help alleviate pain in various parts of the body, such as the joints or back. Pain felt at an injection site can be treated with warm or cold compresses. A topical anesthetic cream may also be used.


Certain hormonal therapies, such as the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, can increase coughing symptoms. Women should try to drink at least 8 glasses of fluid a day to keep the lining of the breathing tube moist. Using a humidifier to increase the moisture in the air is also a good idea. Medicines, such as dextromethorphan, benzonatate, and guaifenesin, may be used to stop or control coughing.


Osteoporosis is a disorder in which bones become porous and break more easily. Women who have gone through menopause have a higher risk of bone loss. Some hormone therapies, such as tamoxifen in some case, may lower bone loss in postmenopausal women. Other hormone therapies may not prevent or modify a woman's risk of getting osteoporosis. For this reason, postmenopausal women with breast cancer should have a bone mineral analysis to determine if a preventive therapy should be used.

Women treated with hormonal therapy should have routine screenings (bone density scans) for osteoporosis. The following suggestions are recommended for people at risk:

  • Take calcium and vitamin D supplements

  • Get regular physical activity, including weight-bearing exercises that put stress on bones, such as jogging, stair climbing, dancing, and resistance exercises, such as weight lifting.

  • Quit smoking

  • Modify alcohol intake

Medications that prevent bone loss include the bisphosphonates risedronate, zoledronic acid, alendronate, denosumab, and calcitonin. Women should talk to their doctor about which medicines, if any, would be best for them.

Rare but serious side effects

Endometrial cancer

Although most side effects of hormonal therapy are not life-threatening, in very rare cases, tamoxifen can raise a woman's chances of getting endometrial cancer, which occurs in the lining of the uterus. Women taking tamoxifen should report any unusual vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, or pain or pressure in the lower abdomen to their doctor or nurse. Annual pelvic examinations to look for signs of cancer are also recommended.

Blood clots

Some hormonal therapies carry a slight risk of blood clots forming in the deep blood vessels of the legs and groin. Clots can break off and spread to the lungs. Blood clots stop the flow of blood and can cause serious medical problems. Signs of a blood clot in the lungs include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, or coughing up blood. Symptoms of a blood clot in the legs include pain, swelling, or tenderness in the groin or legs. Women should let their doctor know if they have a history of blood clots. They should also report any of these symptoms to the doctor or nurse as soon as possible.

Effects on the eye

Tamoxifen can cause cataracts or changes to the parts of the eye called the cornea and retina. Women should report any vision changes--including an inability to tell the difference between colors--to their health care provider.


Tamoxifen increases a woman's chance of having a stroke. Symptoms of stroke include weakness, sudden severe headache, slurred speech, trouble with seeing in one or both eyes, difficulty walking or talking, or numbness of the face, arm, or leg. Women should immediately report these symptoms to their doctor.

Related Items
Wellness Library
  Good News for Breast Cancer Detection and Care
  Solving the Breast Cancer Puzzle
  Reducing Your Risk for Breast Cancer
  Hope on the Horizon for Breast Cancer
SCC Videos
  Breast Biopsy
  Breast Cancer Screening
Content Type 156
  Breast Biopsy Podcast
  Breast Scan Podcast
Content Type 167
  CA 15-3
  CA 27-29
  Immunohistochemical Test for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors
Nutritional Supplement Advisor
HealthInk Healthy Tips
  Breast Cancer and Smoking
Drug Reference
  Fluorouracil, 5-FU
  Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel
Cancer Source
  Sex and Cancer: Questions for Your Doctor
  Breast Cancer—Understanding Genetic Testing
  What You Need to Know About Digital Mammography
  The Soy and Breast Cancer Controversy: Cause for Concern?
  The 'Chemobrain' Phenomenon in Breast Cancer
  MRIs for Breast Cancer Screening—Who Needs Them?
  If You Are Having Hormonal Therapy
  What Is Breast Cancer?
  What to Know About Your Treatment Choices for Breast Cancer
  Ductal Carcinoma
  Statistics About Breast Cancer
  Can I Get Checked for Breast Cancer Before I Have Symptoms?
  What Can I Do if I Am at Risk for Breast Cancer?
  What Are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer?
  How Does My Doctor Know I Have Breast Cancer?
  Tests That Help Evaluate the Traits of Your Breast Cancer
  Understanding Your Grade and Stage of Breast Cancer
  What to Know About Surgery for Breast Cancer
  Breast Cancer: What Happens After Reconstructive Surgery
  Goal of Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer
  Do What You Can to Ease Side Effects of Treatment and Symptoms for Breast Cancer
  Finding Out You Have Breast Cancer
  What to Know About Combination Therapy for Breast Cancer
  How You Get Radiation for Breast Cancer
  What You Need to Know About Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
  Tips for Feeling Your Best During Treatment for Breast Cancer
  Taking Care of Your Incision After Breast Surgery
  How Your Doctor Uses Biopsies to Make Your Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
  Understanding Your Type of Breast Cancer
  What to Know About Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC)
  Can I Survive Breast Cancer? What Is My Prognosis?
  Am I at Risk for Breast Cancer?
  Myths About What Causes Breast Cancer
  Questions to Ask About Treatment for Breast Cancer
  What to Expect After Surgery for Breast Cancer
  What Happens During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer
  What to Expect After Radiation Treatment for Breast Cancer
  What Happens During Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer
  Making the Decision to Have Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
  What Happens During Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
  Ovarian Ablation as Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
  What to Expect After Taking Hormone Therapy Drugs for Breast Cancer
  What to Know About Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
  What Happens During Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer
  Making the Decision to Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy for Breast Cancer
  When Breast Cancer Spreads to the Bones
  Exercising After Breast Cancer: Moving Toward Health
  Aromatase Inhibitors for Breast Cancer
Cancer FAQs
  Breast Cancer FAQ
  Breast Cancer Quiz
  Breast Cancer Risk Assessment
Daily News Feed
  Menopausal Hot Flashes Might Be More Intense for Cancer Survivors
  Mammogram Recalls Higher at Hospitals Than Private Practices: Study
  New Clues to Why Black Women Fare Worse Against Breast Cancer
  Family History of Cancer May Raise Risk for Other Types of Tumors
  Can Some Women Safely Skip Breast Surgery?
  Experts Call for Redefinition of 'Cancer'
  More Women Consider Gene Test After Angelina Jolie Mastectomy Revelation
  MRIs May Spur Unneeded Mastectomies in Older Women With Breast Cancer
  Breast-Feeding May Protect Some Women Against Breast Cancer
  Terms Docs Use Can Influence Patients' Cancer Choices
  Drinking Before First Pregnancy Raises Risk of Breast Cancer: Study
  MRI May Not Improve Outcomes for Early Form of Breast Cancer
  Most Women Don't Understand Their Breast Cancer Risk: Survey
  Most Breast Cancer Deaths Occur in Younger, Unscreened Women: Study
  Novel Drug Shows Promise for Early Stage Breast Cancer
  Researchers Focus on Likelihood of Breast Cancer Recurrence
  FDA Approves First 'Pre-Surgical' Drug for Breast Cancer
  Unfounded Fear Prompts Some Preventive Mastectomies: Study
  Report Sees Continued Advances in War Against Cancer
  First Generic Version of Xeloda Approved
  Tamoxifen's Mental Side Effects Are Real, Study Shows
  Shorter Radiation Course Appears Effective for Early Breast Cancer
  Women Vets May Need More Access to Breast Cancer Services
  Daily Tasks a Challenge for Many Older Breast Cancer Patients
  Stem Cells From Fat Might Improve Plastic Surgery
  Can Eating Peanut Butter Cut Breast Cancer Risk in Later Life?
  Blood Pressure Drug Might Boost Chemo Success, Mouse Study Suggests
  More Black Women in U.S. Diagnosed With Breast Cancer, Report Finds
  Perjeta Approved for Early Stage Breast Cancer
  New Analysis Confirms Hormone Therapy Won't Prevent Disease After Menopause
  Mexican Women's Breast Cancer Risk Tied to Breast-Feeding?
  Daily Walk May Cut Your Breast Cancer Risk
  Health Tip: Exercising After Breast Cancer
  Study Questions Use of Less-Invasive Lymph Node Surgery for Breast Cancer
  Experts Urge Routine Test for All Patients With Invasive Breast Cancer
  Breast Cancer Patients Have Unrelated Plastic Surgery After Reconstruction
  Could a Neck Injection Ease Tough-to-Bear Hot Flashes?
  Anesthesia Technique May Affect Survival After Breast Cancer Surgery: Study
  Being Web-Savvy Tied to Better Health in Seniors: Study
  'Body Clock' May Explain Why Some Body Parts Age Faster Than Others
  After Breast Cancer Surgery, Patient Assistance Programs Can Help
  Breast Cancer Diagnosed at Later Stage in Rural Patients: Study
  Hormone Levels May Help Predict Breast Cancer Risk, Study Finds
  Health Tip: Performing a Breast Self-Exam
  Tests May Someday Show Which Breast, Prostate Cancers Will Turn Aggressive
  Radiation for Breast Cancer May Raise Heart Risks: Study
  Some Women Cite Personal Growth After Breast Cancer Diagnosis
  Poorer Women Delay Examination of Breast Lumps, Study Suggests
  Exercise May Help Breast Cancer Survivors Battle Bone Loss
  Many Women Suffer Persistent Pain After Mastectomy
  'One-Stop' Radiation Treatment Might Offer Breast Cancer Care Alternative
  Most Men With Breast Cancer Undergo Mastectomy, Study Finds
  Study Compares Treatments for Arm Swelling Due to Breast Cancer
  Use of Breast MRIs Way Up, Studies Find
  Breast-Density Changes May Be Tied to Cancer Risk: Study
  Even When Breast Cancer Gene Test Is Negative, Risk Can Persist: Study
  Frequent Mammograms Tied to Lower Risk of Breast Cancer Spread
  Money Problems Can Compromise Breast Cancer Care
  Obesity, Smoking Might Threaten Implants After Mastectomy
  Drug Arimidex Cuts Risk for Breast Cancer in Older, High-Risk Women: Study
  Exercise Might Ease Joint Pain Caused by Breast Cancer Drugs
  Exercise Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk in Black Women
  Bigger Breasts, Lack of Exercise Tied to Breast Cancer Mortality
  Bones Benefit From Exercise After Breast Cancer, Study Finds
  New Look at Past Studies Highlights Importance of Mammograms
  New Treatment for Aggressive Breast Cancer Shows Some Promise
  Drug May Help Slow Advanced Breast Cancer
  Chemo for Advanced Breast Cancer Might Be Enough
  2 Pre-Surgery Drug Treatments Show Promise Against Aggressive Breast Cancer
  FDA Warns Against Nipple Test for Breast Cancer Screening
  U.S. Cancer Death Rates Continue to Decline: Report
  80 Percent of Cancer Docs Have Faced Drug Shortages: Survey
  Angelina Jolie's Story Didn't Boost Knowledge of Breast Cancer Risks: Study
  Acupuncture No Better Than 'Sham' Version in Breast-Cancer Drug Study
  Only High-Risk Women Need Breast Cancer Gene Test: Experts
  Troubled Launch of 'Obamacare' Tops Health News for 2013
  Many Women Still Have Pain One Year After Breast Cancer Surgery
  U.S. Cancer Deaths Decline Again: Report
  Progress Against Cancer May Be Greater Than Thought
  'Sleep Hormone' Tied to Possible Lower Prostate Cancer Risk
  Yoga May Reduce Fatigue, Inflammation in Breast Cancer Survivors
  Doctors May Need to Revise How They Evaluate Breast Biopsy Results
  Running Might Beat Walking for Breast Cancer Survivors
  Expanded DNA Testing Might Allow Personalized Breast Cancer Treatment
  Gene Exam Might Predict Breast Cancer Progression
  Annual Mammograms Don't Reduce Breast Cancer Deaths, Study Contends
  Double Mastectomy May Benefit Some Women With Inherited Breast Cancer
  More Breast Cancer Patients Choosing Reconstructive Surgery, Study Finds
  Avastin Shows Mixed Results Against Different Cancers
  Ovarian Cancer Gene May Point to Early Removal of Ovaries: Study
  Necks, Butts Growth Areas for U.S. Plastic Surgeons
  Yoga May Help Breast Cancer Patients During Radiation Therapy
  Targeted Radiation Might Help Fight Advanced Breast Cancer: Study
  Whole-Genome Scans Not Quite Ready for Widespread Use: Study
  Study Supports Radiation When Breast Cancer Spreads to Few Lymph Nodes
  Daily Exercise Lowers Breast Cancer Risk: Study
  New Guidelines Might Limit Need for Lymph Node Removal for Breast Cancer
  Routine Mammograms Found Not Helpful for Most Women Over 70
  Many Breast Cancer Survivors Suffer Financially, Study Finds
  Slight Drop in Rate of Advanced Cancers, CDC Says
  Fertility Drugs May Not Raise Breast Cancer Risk: Study
  New Review Suggests Benefits of Annual Mammograms Are Overstated
  Experimental Breast Cancer Drug Seems Safe, Effective for Advanced Disease
  Vegetables in Childhood May Benefit Breast Health
  Could Daughter's Cancer Risk Be Affected by Father's Age at Birth?
  High-Fat Diet May Boost Breast Cancer Risk
  Cheaper 'Gene Panel' Screening May Reveal Cancer Risks
  Blood Test Aims to Predict Breast Cancer's Return
  So-Called 'Apple Shape' Not a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer: Study
  False-Positive Mammograms Don't Deter Women From Future Screening: Study
  Joblessness an Unwanted Side Effect of Chemo for Breast Cancer
  Radiation May Equal Surgery, With Easier Recovery, for Cancerous Lymph Nodes
  'Freezing' Technique May Work for Some Women With Early Breast Cancer
  Ultrasound of Lymph Nodes No Less Accurate for Obese Women, Study Says
  Lung Cancer Not on Many Women's Radar: Survey
  Tough-to-Treat Breast Cancer Nearly Twice as Common in Black Women: Study
  Obesity May Raise Breast Cancer Death Risk for Some Women
  Could a Blood Test Predict Breast Cancer's Return?
  Surgery Isn't Only Option for Women With Ovarian Cancer Genes
  Double Mastectomy Often Not Needed, Study Finds
  New Guidelines Recommend Longer Tamoxifen Treatment
  Memory Problems After Chemo Linked to Brain Changes
  Drug May Lower Odds of Early Menopause in Breast Cancer Patients
  Some Breast Cancer Patients May Get Drug-Linked Heart Failure: Study
  Newer Anti-Estrogen Treatment May Benefit Younger Breast Cancer Survivors
  Certain Breast Cancer Patients May Need Little Treatment After Tumor Removal
  Medicaid Patients Get Worse Cancer Care, Studies Contend
  Sophisticated Chest Scans May Raise Children's Lifetime Cancer Risk
  Many Women With Breast Cancer Get Too Little Exercise
  Breast Cancer Drug Herceptin Linked to Risk of Heart Problems: Study
  Moles May Be Harbinger of Higher Breast Cancer Risk
  Red Meat May Raise Breast Cancer Risk, Study Suggests
  Tumor-Targeting Agent Attaches to Cancer Cells: Study
  Breast Cancer Surgery Rates Vary Greatly in Canada
  Women With Breast Cancer Genes More Likely to Choose Extensive Surgery
  Older Breast Cancer Patients Do Follow Drug Therapy: Study
  MRIs Plus Mammograms Best for High-Risk Women, Study Finds
  Mammography Cuts Breast Cancer Deaths by 28 Percent: Study
  3D Mammograms May Improve Breast Cancer Screening
  Mammography Costs Soar for Seniors, But Detection Rates the Same: Study
  Men Develop Breast Cancer, Too
  'Generally Reassuring' Findings on Fertility Drugs, Women's Cancers
  Cholesterol Levels May Be Linked to Breast Cancer Risk
  Breast Cancer Drug Aromasin May Be Option for Some Premenopausal Women
Adult Diseases and Conditions
  Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)
  Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
  About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
  How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?
  General Information About Breast Cancer
  Other Treatments for Breast Cancer
  National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP)
  Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
  Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
  Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer
  Stages of Breast Cancer
  Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR)
  Breast Cancer Statistics
  About Taxol
  Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care
  Treatments for Breast Cancer
  Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1/BRCA2)
  Genetics of Breast Cancer
  Breast Cancer Overview
  Should You Consider Preventive Drugs for Breast Cancer?
  Should You Be Tested for the Breast Cancer Gene?
Test and Procedures
  Breast Biopsy